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The coronavirus vaccine

We’ve provided some answers to a number of key questions below (including some information on the booster programme).


What do we know about the coronavirus vaccine?

There are 3 vaccines approved for use in the UK:

  • Pfizer-Biontech
  • Oxford-AstraZeneca
  • Moderna.

Each vaccine requires 2 doses to be fully effective, with the second dose given between 3-4 and 12 weeks after the first. As of September 2021, the Government has also announced a booster programme - see below for further information.

The UK regulator and Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (the independent experts that advise Government on all vaccines) have assessed all the vaccines to be safe and able to offer a ‘high’ level of protection against becoming severely unwell with coronavirus.

When will I receive my coronavirus vaccine?

All adults in Wales are now eligible to receive their 2 dose vaccine under the initial roll out (but only some are presently eligible for the booster - see below).

Anyone who has still not had their intial 2 dose vaccine can contact their Local Health Board for an appointment - visit the NHS Wales website for further information.

When the vaccination programme first began in December 2020, those at most risk were prioritised first, as advised by the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The Welsh Government published the priority list order in their ‘Vaccination Strategy for Wales’, as follows:

Priority groups 1 to 9

  1. People living in a care home for older adults and their carers.
  2. All those 80 years of age and older and frontline health and social care workers.
  3. All those 75 years of age and over.
  4. All those 70 years of age and over and people who are extremely clinically vulnerable (also known as the “shielding” group – i.e. people in this group will previously have received a letter from the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) advising them to shield at the beginning of the pandemic, plus a couple of other communications from the CMO at other stages).
  5. All those 65 years of age and over.
  6. All individuals aged 16 years to 64 years with underlying health conditions which put them at higher risk of serious disease and mortality - see below for a list of the relevant conditions. On 24 February 2021, the Welsh Government announced that certain unpaid carers were also to be included at this stage. Guidance was published with further information on which unpaid carers should be prioritised, based on factors such as the vulnerability of the cared for person and the nature of the care provided.
  7. All those 60 years of age and over.
  8. All those 55 years of age and over.
  9. All those 50 years of age and over.

The NHS has listed the underlying conditions as follows:

The Vaccination Strategy for Wales also set 3 key milestones for the Welsh Government’s vaccine programme:

1. By mid February 2021 – it was aimed that vaccination should be offered to all:

  • care home residents and staff;
  • frontline health and social care staff;
  • people aged 70 years of age and over; and
  • clinically extremely vulnerable individuals (the “shielding” group).

2. By the spring of 2021 – it was aimed that vaccination should be offered to all:

  • people aged between 50 and 69 years; and
  • people clinically vulnerable/at risk.

3. By the autumn of 2021 – it is aimed that vaccination should be offered to:

  • all other adults (additionally, the Welsh Government announced in September 2021 that 12 to 15 year-olds are to be offered a single dose of the Pfizer vaccine). 

A copy of the Vaccination Strategy for Wales can be found on the Welsh Government’s website.

COVID-19 vaccine booster programme

The Welsh Government will be following the advice of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) on booster vaccines. As such, individuals who were eligible and received their vaccinations in Phase 1 of the COVID-19 vaccination programme should be offered a third dose COVID-19 booster vaccine. However, there will need to be a minimum 6-month interval after someone's second dose before a booster can be given.

People eligible under Phase 1 were the priority groups 1 to 9. You can find a full list of these above, but it includes those most at risk, such as:

  • people living in care homes;
  • those aged 50 and over;
  • people with underlying health conditions; and
  • carers.

If you are in one of these priority groups, you will be eligible for the booster vaccine. However, the Welsh Government have advised that you should wait to be invited - your Local Health Board will contact you when it’s your turn. Your GP will not be able to advise on appointments.

The booster vaccines will be rolled out from the end of September 2021.

There may be opportunities to co-administer the COVID-19 booster vaccine and flu vaccine, but this is only where timing and other logistics allow.

The JCVI has recommended that either a Pfizer-BioNTech or a Moderna vaccine should be used for the booster, irrespective of which vaccine was given as a primary dose.  

The Welsh Government has advised that it is important that those now eligible for a booster dose take up the offer, as there is the possibility of reduced immunity from their previous doses over time.

Younger adults (those aged under 50) who don't fall within any of the priority group categories 1 to 9 are not eligible for the booster vaccination at the present time, but the JCVI will be keeping the situation under review and they may become eligible at a later date.

Further information on the booster vaccine programme can be found on the Welsh Government website.

Who will contact me about receiving my vaccination?

The NHS will contact you by letter or phone when a vaccination appointment is available for you.

If your contact details have changed lately, make sure your GP practice has the most up to date information. 

As indicated above, you will need to receive two doses of the vaccine. In addition, there is now a booster programme - see above.

Be aware of scams:

Please be aware that scam calls or text messages relating to the vaccine have been circulating, requesting personal details, bank details or payments.

The vaccine is only available from the NHS and they will never ask you for this information, or for you to make payment as the vaccine is free of charge.

The NHS will never:

  • ask for your bank account or card details;
  • ask for your PIN or banking passwords;
  • arrive unannounced at your home to administer the vaccine; or
  • ask for documentation to prove your identity, such as a passport or utility bills.

If you receive a call, text or other communication that you think might be a scam, hang up or delete the text and report it to Action Fraud, including the number that was used to contact you. Action Fraud is the reporting centre for fraud and cybercrime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Where will I receive my vaccination?

Vaccinations will take place at one of the following settings:

  • at a hospital;
  • in the community – through GPs and pharmacists; or
  • in specially designated vaccination centres.

If you can't travel to get a vaccine, you should still be contacted. The NHS can make special arrangements for people who are housebound.

What happens after I've had my vaccination? 

While the first vaccine dose will provide you with some protection, you won’t be fully protected until a few weeks after your second dose as it takes a bit of time for your immune system to respond to the vaccine. There is also evidence of possible reduced immunity over time, hence the booster vaccine programme that is beginning in September 2021 - see above.

Even after your vaccine doses, any government rules and restrictions in place will still apply to you. This is because:

  • No vaccine is 100% effective. Even after you’ve waited those first few weeks, and following your second dose (or a booster dose), your vaccination may not offer you complete protection from becoming unwell with coronavirus, though in these instances the symptoms should be less severe (you should still self-isolate and get a test if you get any coronavirus symptoms in the period after your vaccination).
  • Restrictions of varying kinds will remain in place as long as there are large numbers of people in the UK with coronavirus.
  • We don’t yet know how well the coronavirus vaccines work at preventing transmission of the virus. It’s therefore possible that after vaccination you could catch coronavirus but have no symptoms, so be able to pass it on unknowingly to someone else.

We also don’t know at the moment exactly how long immunity lasts and how frequently extra does might be required. Experts will monitor the vaccine and what happens next and advise the government accordingly.

In general, the purpose of a vaccine is always the same: to train our immune system to respond to a germ as if it has seen it before and remembers how to tackle it. Vaccines teach our bodies to recognise antigens. This is the part of the virus that attaches to the cells in our body – something they need to do to replicate and cause an infection. After vaccination, if the virus gets into our body, our immune system should remember what to do and produce antibodies to fight it. This means the infection shouldn’t get a chance to take hold and we shouldn’t become unwell with the virus (however, as stated above, it can’t be guaranteed that they are 100% effective in all situations).

How have the coronavirus vaccines been developed so quickly?

Developing a vaccine often takes some time. This is usually because research and pharmaceutical companies can’t commit to funding the whole process. There are often long gaps between phases while organisations wait for funding before moving to the next stage. Even when a vaccine is approved, it takes some time for pharmaceutical companies to set up manufacturing and produce the vaccine in the quantities needed for public use.

As the coronavirus pandemic has had such an impact globally, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have worked together to reduce the amount of time spent waiting between the phases of development.

Funding and approval for these vaccines has been made a priority. Governments around the world have ‘pre-ordered’ doses which means pharmaceutical companies have been able to set up manufacturing for vaccines earlier than usual.

While this collaborative approach means vaccines will be available sooner, it doesn’t mean any shortcuts have been taken. Each vaccine that’s approved for use will have been through all the essential stages in its development.

Are the vaccines safe?

Whilst the vaccines have been developed quickly, they have been extensively tested. The UK medicines regulator (MHRA) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations (JCVI) have stated that the approved vaccines are safe and offer a high level of protection against becoming severely unwell with COVID-19.

The vaccine you receive will be determined by the available stocks in your area, and you will not get a choice about which vaccine you receive. However, if you suffer from severe allergies you should speak to a healthcare professional via contact details provided when you are given your appointment (or to your GP) as the MHRA has advised against giving the Pfizer vaccine to people with a significant history of allergic reactions to medicines, vaccines or food.

When you receive the vaccine, you may experience some side effects that are common to other vaccines, such as the one for flu. These are:

  • A sore arm, particularly in the area you had your injection.
  • Tiredness.
  • Headache.
  • General aches or mild flu-like symptoms.
  • Swollen glands (this only affects a small number of people).

If you do experience any of these side effects, they shouldn’t last too long – they normally pass within a week. But if they don’t clear up or you start to feel worse, you should call NHS 111 Wales to describe your symptoms and let them know you’ve had the vaccine so they can advise you.

Any side effects you experience can also be reported to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (MHRA) Yellow Card Scheme

Should I get a vaccine?

Whether or not you decide to get a vaccine is an individual decision. The vaccine isn't compulsory. However, when making any decision there are things worth considering:

  • Being vaccinated means you're much less likely to become ill with coronavirus.
  • Most of the population will have to be vaccinated for this pandemic to come to an end.
  • Any vaccine offered to you will be licensed and approved and will have gone through all the necessary stages of development to make it safe and effective.
  • Your healthcare professional is there to answer any questions or worries you might have about the vaccine.

I've already had coronavirus. Do I still need to get a vaccine?

While your body may have built up some natural immunity to coronavirus if you’ve already had it, we don’t know for certain how long this immunity lasts or how well it protects you from catching it again.

This natural immunity from having an illness doesn’t usually last as long as the immunity of a vaccine, so it’s recommended that if you’ve had coronavirus you do still get a vaccine when it becomes available to you.

How will consent for the vaccine be gained for people with reduced capacity to make decisions about their healthcare?

Everyone who receives a coronavirus vaccine will be required to give consent. Some people who will be offered the vaccine may lack mental capacity to make decisions about vaccination – this may apply to your loved one.

If this is the case, the decision-maker – usually someone’s GP or the person giving the vaccine – will need to follow the legal requirements set out under the Mental Capacity Act.

Due to this, care home providers have been asked to send letters and have conversations in advance with:

  • people who have a valid and applicable Lasting Power of Attorney for health and welfare decisions on behalf of a resident; or
  • to relatives who will need to be involved in making a best interest decision on behalf of an individual.

Further information: Public Health Wales has also created a detailed Q&A, which provides answers to a further range of questions and queries.

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