Lifestyle linked to changes in brain ageing
Published on 15 December 2014 09:30 AM
Lifestyle responsible for up to 76% of changes in brain ageing, according to Age UK
Analysis reveals five factors that can reduce the risk of dementia by up to 36 per cent.
Analysis by Age UK suggests there are five steps people can take to maintain brain health and reduce their risk of developing dementia.
The review of academic studies and data reveals that about 76 per cent of cognitive decline - changes in thinking skills with age including memory loss and speed of thinking - is accounted for by lifestyle and other environmental factors including level of education.[i]
The finding from The Disconnected Mind[ii], an Age UK funded research project into how thinking skills alter with age, which was part of the analysis, suggests that there is significant potential to influence these changes.
Furthermore, Age UK's review, which included the latest international dementia studies, indicates that certain lifestyle factors - regular physical exercise, eating a Mediterranean diet, not smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation - decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's, and other forms of dementia. In addition, preventing and treating diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity were also found to reduce the risk of dementia.
One large UK study carried out over thirty years found that men aged between 45 and 59 who followed 4-5 of the identified lifestyle factors were found to have a 36 per cent lower risk of developing cognitive decline and a 36% lower risk of developing dementia than those who did not.[iii]
Age UK's evidence review also revealed that physical exercise - aerobic, resistance or balance - was the most effective way to ward off cognitive decline in healthy older people and reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.[iv] Studies suggest that exercise three to five times a week for between 30 minutes and an hour is beneficial.
But the evidence review also showed that a healthy diet, moderate alcohol intake and not smoking also play a role in ensuring healthy brain ageing as well as reducing the risk of developing dementia.[v]
It found that there are significantly more new cases of Alzheimer's among current smokers compared with those who have never smoked.[vi]The review also backed up claims that very heavy drinking is also linked to dementia, resulting in the loss of brain tissue particularly in the parts of the brain responsible for memory and processing and interpreting visual information.[vii] Moderate levels of alcohol, however, were found to protect brain tissue by increasing good cholesterol and lowering bad cholesterol.
According to the latest estimates, there are 850,000 people in the UK living with dementia[viii]. It will affect one in three people over the age of 65.[ix] Age UK hopes the new evidence will spur people to make changes which will help them reduce the risk of developing dementia.
Caroline Abrahams, Charity Director of Age UK said 'While there's still no cure or way to reverse dementia, this evidence shows that there are simple and effective ways to reduce our risk of developing it to begin with.
'What's more, the changes that we need to make to keep our brains healthy are already proven to be good for the heart and overall health, so it's common sense for us all to try to build them into our lives. The sooner we start, the better our chance of having a healthy later life.'
Age UK is funding the University of Edinburgh's The Disconnected Mind project which is investigating how thinking skills alter with age and what influences those changes.
Age UK has recently produced two information guides - Living with early-stage dementia and Caring for someone with dementia. Both guides can be downloaded from www.ageuk.org.uk or ordered from the Age UK Advice Line on 0800 169 65 65.
Notes to editors
We work with our national partners, Age Scotland, Age Cymru and Age NI and our local Age UK partners in England (together the Age UK Family). We also work internationally for people in later life as a member of the DEC and with our sister charity Help Age International.
Age UK believes that everyone should have the opportunity to make the most of later life, whatever their circumstances. We provide free information, advice and support to over six million people; commercial products and services to over one million customers; and research and campaign on the issues that matter to people in later life. Our work focuses on five key areas: money matters, health and well being, home and care, work and training and leisure and lifestyle.
Age UK is a charitable company limited by guarantee and registered in England (registered charity number 1128267 and company number 6825798). Age Concern England and Help the Aged (both registered charities), and their trading and other associated companies merged on the 1st April 2009. Together they have formed the Age UK Group ("we"). Charitable services are offered through Age UK and commercial products are offered by the Charity's trading companies, which donate their net profits to Age UK (the Charity).
[i] Deary,et al. Genetic contributions to stability and change in intelligence from childhood to old age. Nature, 482, 212-215.
[ii] Disconnected Mind link (tba)
[iii] Elwood et al (2013) Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (12): e81877 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone., London
[iv] Beydoun et al. Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:643
[v] Beydoun et al. Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:643
[vi] Elwood et al (2013) Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (12): e81877 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone., London
[vii] Dementia and Risk Reduction: An analysis of protective and modifiable factors, Alzheimer's Disease International, London, 2014
[viii] Alzheimer's Society 2014
[ix] Alzheimer's Association 2013